Ruby is the red variety of the mineral corundrum; all other colors are known as sapphires but rubies are colored by the presence of chromium. One of the 3 hardest known gems, they rate a 9 on the Mohs scale.  They’re mined in Burma, Thailand, Tanzania, Madagascar, Vietnam, Nepal, and some US states.

Metaphysical:     Rubies are said to bring clarity and wisdom to your thoughts, and promote lucid dreaming while asleep.  Ruled by Mars, they’re July’s birthstone, and associated with the element of fire.  Like all red stones, they’re aligned with the first chakra.